Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, private communication)

Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, private communication)

(20) The phrase having ‘brother’, aha in the BT, has additionally already been augmented, even though this setting is even utilized in Turoyo. Hertevin provides each other ?aha and ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), but Mandaic has only aha (Macuch 1965, 495).

Concurrently, exterior NENA, i have almost every other terms: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)

(21) You to alternatively mysterious goods which is attested throughout NENA languages except Sanandaj Christian (and this most likely just a spin gap on research) try aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) argues this term comes in the root ql ‘to end up being crooked’. Most of the dialects utilize the form aqla, but Koy Sanjaq aqla and you can Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.

(22) Some other word chatted about of the Krotkoff (1985, 131-32, 134) is baxta ‘woman’, which includes supplanted the latest Syriac atta in all NENA, yet not inside the Turoyo or Mandaic. So it term appears to result from Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It’s fascinating to note that an irregular plural survives from inside the several dialects: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and Halabja inse.

(23) An unexpected creativity discussed of the Noldeke (1868, 59) is rxata, add up to Syriac rhat. The alteration out of h to x contained in this one-word was used in the NENA languages where in fact the verb is attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi r-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).

(24) Another unanticipated creativity is the NENA verb ‘fear’, which takes the latest models zda?good, zdaya, and zdala from the individuals languages. Macuch and you may Panoussi (1974, 50) offer a prospective derivation in the Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Models into infixed d are found in most brand new NENA dialects where sources try attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-dreading (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)

Never assume all of your own determining attributes of NENA can be found in both Turoyo otherwise Mandaic

I think the more than makes it clear the NENA languages share a variety of special attributes which can be discovered neither in the earlier attested kinds of Aramaic xmeets nor from the most other way of living languages. These features variety across the domain names away from phonology, morphology, and lexicon.

Specifically, all of the dialects out-of NENA concur during the criteria 2, 9, fourteen, 15, sixteen, 21, and you will 22. The languages where we have information including acknowledge criteria 20, 23, and you will twenty four.

All but Halabja consent for the standards 8 and 11. Expectations 6 is found in most of the languages but Halabja, Hertevin, and Sanandaj Religious.

Even with its inner divisions, the fresh new NENA dialects mode a strikingly defined category, separated obviously away from one another Turoyo and you can Mandaic. The career ones dialects outside the NENA soft may be out of question.

The degree that has actually is shared all over NENA is particularly impressive whenever we take into account the enormous differences between various languages. The new dictate off other languages towards the NENA might have been one another deep and you may greater, plus the level of shared intelligibility anywhere between languages can be quite short. The countless shared innovations dispute highly to possess a familiar supply away from the brand new NENA dialects, in both just one dialect or in a team of directly associated languages. Meanwhile, we are able to detect a number of important packages of isoglosses which represent the fresh limits regarding dialect organizations.

a) The fresh new dialect out-of Halabja cannot show certain very important innovations and that can be found as a result of all remainder of the dialects. It doesn’t form a beneficial CCiC-ce preterite off intransitive verbs (8), it offers no b(it)- upcoming marker (10), features no 3rd individual only 1 copula having 1 (11). This will be more basic division between languages off NENA. It indicates that remaining dialects form a team by which designs pass on if you’re Halabja stayed unchanged because of the them.